maxim gorky biography

Gorky, Maksim, 1868–1936—Political and social views. These early stories featured tramps, vagabonds, derelicts, and social outcasts. Commentaries to Makar Chudra // Горький М. Макар Чудра и другие рассказы. In this novel and all his later works, Gorky identified himself as being a bitter enemy of capitalism and depicted the society of prerevolutionary Russia as drab and dreary. In 1888 he worked in fisheries on the Caspian Sea. [citation needed]. Our summaries and analyses are written by experts, and your questions are answered by real teachers. Gorky's most famous works were The Lower Depths (1902), Twenty-six Men and a Girl (1899), The Song of the Stormy Petrel (1901), My Childhood (1913–1914), Mother (1906), Summerfolk (1904) and Children of the Sun (1905). Prior to his renown as an author, he frequently changed jobs and roamed across the Russian Empire; these experiences would later influence his writin… He often found strong elements of humanity and individual dignity in even the most brutalized and demoralized of these "down-and-outers." He was also appointed President of the Union of Soviet Writers, founded in 1932, to coincide with his return to the USSR. Communism and literature—Soviet Union. During the revolution, he lent total support to the Bolshevik cause. In August 1921, the poet Nikolay Gumilev was arrested by the Petrograd Cheka for his monarchist views. [citation needed], In 1916, Gorky said that the teachings of the ancient Jewish sage Hillel the Elder deeply influenced his life: "In my early youth I read...the words of...Hillel, if I remember rightly: 'If thou art not for thyself, who will be for thee? Culture» (2000, 1,30 rubles). He expressed sympathy and self-identification with the strength and determination of the individual hobo or criminal, characters previously described more objectively. He served as an advocate for Soviet as well as the Union of Soviet Writers. 1903) ( divorced) ( 2 children). 261–270..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}. The bitterness of these early experiences later led him to choose the word gorky (“bitter”) as his pseudonym. He wandered through Russia for several years. His writings are known to be naturalistic. His son died in 1935. By then, he was a world-famous figure, his works having been published in many countries. He was released from the prison after a European-wide campaign, which was supported by Marie Curie, Auguste Rodin and Anatole France, amongst others. [39] Even in its toned-down version – very unusually for the Stalin era – he did not praise Stalin, did not mention any of the approved writers turning out 'socialist realist' novels, but singled out Fyodor Dostoevsky for "having painted with the most vivid perfection of word portraiture a type of egocentrist, a type of social degenerate in the person of the hero of his Memoirs from Underground. It began Gorky’s celebrated “tramp period,” during which he described the social dregs of Russia. He also wrote Meshchane (1902; The Petty Bourgeois, or The Smug Citizen), a play that glorifies the hero-intellectual who has revolutionary tendencies but also that explores the disruptions revolutionaries can wreak on everyday life. 3. Sooner, his play, The Lower Depths was praised by Chekhov having published. 2. Terms of Use He wrote several successful books while there,[30] but by 1928 he was having difficulty earning enough to keep his large household, and began to seek an accommodation with the communist regime. 4. Maxim Gorky, also spelled Maksim Gorky, pseudonym of Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov, (born March 16 [March 28, New Style], 1868, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia—died June 14, 1936), Russian short-story writer and novelist who first attracted attention with his naturalistic and sympathetic stories of tramps and social outcasts and later wrote other stories, novels, and plays, including his famous The Lower Depths. During the Bukharin trial in 1938 (one of the three Moscow Trials), one of the charges was that Gorky was killed by Yagoda's NKVD agents.[42]. Frequently beaten by his employers, nearly always hungry and ill clothed, he came to know the seamy side of Russian life as few other Russian authors before or since. Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Russian: Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков;[1] 28 March [O.S. Maxim Gorky was a very influential fellow in the political thought at that period and was also active with the emerging Marxist Social-democrat movement. – М: Детская литература, 1970. Gorky’s earliest years were spent in Astrakhan, where his father, a former upholsterer, became a shipping agent. He was made the Chairman of the Soviet Writer's Union, and a figurehead of "socialist realism" . From this point, the rise of Russian capitalism became one of Gorky’s main fictional interests. During the 1905 Revolution, Gorky was again imprisoned for writing proclamations calling for the overthrow of the Czar's government. He was so much devoted to Marxism that he gave much of his income to the cause. Author of. Even in his lifetime he had been enormously celebrated in his native land. At a very tender age he saw a great deal of He became careful in his critique of communism. [9], From 1900 to 1905, Gorky's writings became more optimistic. There he first learned about Russian revolutionary ideas from representatives of the Populist movement, whose tendency to idealize the Russian peasant he later rejected. His most influential writings in these years were a series of political plays, most famously The Lower Depths (1902). Postage stamp, the USSR, «10 years since the death of M. Gorky» (1946, 30 kopeeks), Postage stamp, the USSR, «10 years since the death of M. Gorky» (1946, 60 kopeeks), Postage stamp, Russia, «Rusiia. Biography of Maxim Gorky Maxim Gorky [pseudonym meaning "Maxim the Bitter" of Aleksey Maximovich Pyeshkov] (1868-1936), Russian author considered the father of Soviet revolutionary literature and founder of the doctrine of socialist realism wrote The Mother(1906). Monuments of Maxim Gorky are installed in many cities. Pogrebinsky was Gorky's guest in Sorrento for four weeks in 1930. After an attempt at suicide in December 1887, he travelled on foot across the Russian Empire for five years, changing jobs and accumulating impressions used later in his writing. For the next 6 years he wandered widely about Russia, the Ukraine, and the Caucasus. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He also wrote to the Soviet vice-premier, Alexei Rykov asking him to tell Leon Trotsky that any death sentences carried out on the defendants would be "premeditated and foul murder. Maxim Gorky later produced his full-length books and plays. He published his first story, “Makar Chudra,” in 1892, under the pseudonym of Maxim Gorky (“Maxim the Bitter”), a name that he kept throughout his career. Further, from the late 1890’s on, he lived an extremely public life. He became closely associated with Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov's Bolshevik wing of the party, with Bogdanov taking responsibility for the transfer of funds from Gorky to Vpered. In contrast to his attitude to the trial of the Socialist Revolutionaries, Gorky accepted without question that the engineers were guilty, and expressed regret that in the past he had intervened on behalf of professionals who were being persecuted by the regime. Among the many rumors was that it was a Trotskyite plot. When the boy was five his father died; Gorky returned to Nizhny Novgorod to live with his maternal grandparents, who brought him up after his mother remarried. Despite the fact that he was an acclaimed writer, he was persecuted and forced into exile for many years. During this period he wrote the large novels The Artamonov Business (1925) and The Life of Klim Samgin (an epic novel translated into English as four separate novels—The Bystander, The Magnet, Other Fires, and The Specter), all of them severely critical of life in prerevolutionary Russia. His father, a cabinetmaker, died when Gorky was 4 years old, and the boy was raised in harsh circumstances by his maternal grandparents, the proprietors of a dye works. A dramatic rendering of the kind of flophouse character that Gorky had already used so extensively in his stories, it still enjoys great success abroad and in Russia. The phrase "exterminate all homosexuals and fascism will vanish" is often attributed to him. With the increase of Stalinist repression and especially after the assassination of Sergei Kirov in December 1934, Gorky was placed under unannounced house arrest in his house near Moscow. Brief life of a great enigma: 1868-1936. by Donald Fanger. His he…

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